A primitive cave site showing the cultural layers in the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze ages has recently been discovered in Hyangmok-ri, Kangdong County, Pyongyang.
Unearthed in the cultural layer (fourth and fifth layers) of the Paleolithic age included some 1 650 mammal fossils (animal bone fossils) in nine kinds, 16 stone tools in eight sorts and over 280 spore and pollen fossils, five teeth of ancient type of Korean and 40 pieces of earthenware in the cultural layer (sixth layer) of the Neolithic era, and more than ten earthenware pieces in the cultural layer (seventh layer) of the Bronze Age.
Researchers of the History Faculty at Kim Il Sung University have confirmed through ESR and TL date measurements that the formation of the relics dates back to 36 000-34 000 years in the later period of the Paleolithic era.
They also clarified through research into the kind, material and making style of the stone tools that the tools had widely been used in the later period of the Paleolithic era.
In addition, they explained that the teeth of an ancient Korean dug up in the layer of the Neolithic era were those of a woman in her 50s in the Neolithic era. The earthenware pieces from the cultural layers of the Neolithic and Bronze ages were also verified to be the relics in periods of abovementioned ages through research and analysis of their types, colours and patterns.
The Archaeology Society of the DPRK and the non-permanent material heritage deliberation and assessment committee deliberated on the discovery of and research into the relics before registering the cave site as one of national treasure.
In the past many relics in the Neolithic era confirming that socio-historical premises were fully created for state formation were discovered in the Kangdong area, but it is the first time to find out such relics and remains of the Paleolithic era corresponding to the dawn of human history.
The new discovery of the cave site scientifically proves that the area of Kangdong County in which Tangun, the founding father of the Korean nation, is buried is a place where the Koreans had lived since the Paleolithic era and one of the places where the historical roots of modern Koreans had taken.
1. Stone implements dating back to Paleolithic age (36 000-34 000 years ago) 1-2: scrapers, 3-7: choppers, 8: hand axe, 9-13: hunting stones, 14-16: pokers.
2. Fossil remains of mammals dating back to Paleolithic age (36 000-34 000 years ago) (1) 1-2: milk teeth of tiger (unknown species), 3: tiger’s canine tooth, 4: toe bone in a hind leg of tiger, 5: toe bone in a foreleg of tiger, 6: tiger’s humerus, 7: tiger’s big shinbone, 8-9: leopard’s ulnae, 10-12: canine teeth of brown bear, 13: upper second big molar tooth of brown bear, 14: lower second big molar tooth of brown bear,15: lower third big molar tooth of brown bear, 16: radial bone of brown bear, 17: shinbone of brown bear, 18: heel bone of brown bear.
3. Fossil remains of mammals dating back to Paleolithic age (36 000-34 000 years before) (2) 1: tooth of bicorn rhinoceros (unknown species), 2: lower jawbone of deer, 3: lower second big molar tooth of deer, 4-5: upper second big molar teeth of deer, 6: deer’s lower jawbone, 7: deer’s third toe bone, 8: deer’s heel bone, 9: deer’s anklebone, 10: deer’s sole bone in the hind leg, 11: deer’s humerus, 12: lower first big molar tooth of roe deer, 13-14: roe deer’s second toe bone,15: roe deer’s humerus, 16-17: second toe bones of red deer, 18: red deer’s humerus, 19: canine tooth of wild boar, 20: humerus of wild boar.
4. Fossil remains of mammals dating back to Paleolithic age (36 000-34 000 years back) (3) 1: right antler of deer, 2: left antler of deer.
5. Teeth of an ancient-type Korean in Neolithic age 1: lower right first small molar tooth, 2: upper right first small molar tooth, 3: upper right second small molar tooth, 4: upper left first big molar tooth, 5: upper left second big molar tooth.
6. Pieces of earthenware in Neolithic age: Broken pieces of an earthenware body made by mixing clay and sand, engraving lightning pattern and that of fir tree leaf on it and baking at low temperature.
7. Pieces of top-shaped vessels in the period of Bronze Age: Pieces of the main body of top-shaped vessel made by mixing clay and sand and baking it at low temperature without engraving patterns.